According to statistics, every seventh couple experiences difficulties with conception. At the same time, a decrease in reproductive function can be observed with equal probability in both women and men.
In addition, the so-called combined factor is often revealed, when infertility is present in both spouses.
It would be inaccurate to assume that pregnancy problems are solely due to a physical condition. Often at the heart of infertility are psychological trauma, adverse social factors and problems in family life. It is extremely important to identify all the reasons that provoked this condition, which is why the diagnosis must necessarily be comprehensive. These are tests for various infections, and the determination of the level of hormones, and the assessment of the ovarian reserve, and the study of the fallopian tubes and the uterine cavity. It is also important to identify any medical conditions that may affect fertility.
In this article, we will talk in detail about the forms of female infertility, as well as the optimal treatment regimens that are used to restore reproductive function.
Tubal peritoneal infertility
If the fallopian tubes are missing or obstructed, tubal infertility occurs. The peritoneal form develops if adhesions are formed between the tube and the ovary, as well as with atrophy of special pili-villi, which ensure the movement of the egg. These factors are often combined. The optimal method of treatment in this case is laparoscopy, which allows to restore the ability to conceive in about 35% of cases. If the operation does not have a positive effect, the doctor may recommend the use of assisted reproduction techniques.
The uterine form, as the name implies, is associated with defects in the uterine cavity, which can be either congenital (hypoplasia, organ doubling) or acquired (neoplasms, adhesions, or cicatricial deformities). In the case of uterine infertility, reconstructive plastic operations are usually performed, the effectiveness of which is about 15-20%. If surgery is impractical (for example, if the uterus is absent) or the woman is unable to carry out pregnancy on her own, surrogacy may be recommended.
This form of infertility is characterized by the fact that there is no ovulation in the cycle (the egg either does not mature or cannot leave the follicle). Endocrine infertility can be caused by polycystic ovaries, their inflammation, various injuries, an excess or deficiency of certain hormones, and other reasons.
What treatment will be effective in a particular case? We carry out the correction of hormonal disorders and stimulation of the ovaries. For this, both non-drug methods (normalization of weight and physiotherapy) and drug treatment (hormone therapy) are used. With the right choice of treatment regimen, it is possible to restore natural fertility in 70-80% of cases.
Infertility due to endometriosis
Reproductive function is impaired in every third patient suffering from endometriosis. Scientists have not yet been able to understand how this disease affects fertility, but it is known that foci of endometriosis in the epididymis or fallopian tubes negatively affect ovulation and the progression of the oocyte towards the uterus. The most effective method of treatment is laparoscopic endocoagulation, after which a course of medication is prescribed. It is possible to achieve the onset of pregnancy in an average of 35% of cases.
This form of infertility develops due to the fact that the female body begins to produce ASAT – antibodies to sperm. Male germ cells cannot reach the uterus, since they are perceived by the female immune system as hostile microorganisms that must be destroyed. Is there a chance of getting pregnant in this case? Yes, we carry out artificial insemination, when a man’s sperm is delivered using a special catheter directly to the uterine cavity, bypassing its cervix. The effectiveness of the treatment is about 40%.
Infertility https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infertility of unknown origin is distinguished separately. It is diagnosed in about 15% of cases, and serious difficulties can arise when choosing an effective treatment regimen. Most often, in the presence of this factor, they resort to the use of assisted reproductive technologies.
The decline in reproductive function may be based on more than one problem, their combination.
The effectiveness of infertility treatment is largely influenced by the woman’s age, so a visit to a reproductive specialist should not be postponed. The sooner all the reasons that prevent pregnancy are identified, the faster your dream of having a baby will come true.